5 Tips to Establish Yourself As an Artist

Any artist that's interested in marketing and selling their work at galleries, art festivals or online must know a few things before they begin. This article will discuss five major components beginner artists should think about before they embark on their journey as a successful artist. The first is believe in yourself. Second is create artwork that sales and third is becoming a business. Lastly, find a place to sell your work to help build your name and creditability. Let's take a look at each one.

1. Believe in yourself . One of the most common negative trait many artists have is not believing they are a good enough artist. This is a bunch of bologna. If you have sold any artwork at all you are good enough. You may have to work on a few things but you have to start believing in yourself. I know an artist named Eric McCray who said he put a sign up for himself that said "Believe in Yourself" until he became the artist he wanted to be. So please, believe in yourself and tell all the negative thoughts in your head to shut up!

2. Create artwork . Create 20 to 30 pieces of artwork that are all consistent with each other. Do not paint landscapes, portraits of pets, and abstracts. Choose your niche and stick to it! When collectors and galleries see your work they look for consistency. It shows that you are a professional. Also create art that sales. Do not create art that is boring, dull or dark. People like to feel uplifted so please create your art accordingly.

3. Become a business . Set yourself up as a business. Get business cards, business licenses, separate checking accounts and etc. The worst thing you can do is at an art show and you do not have any business cards. You are completely missing out on sales. Next, get a website to help promote yourself as an artist. Website are fairly inexpensive these days and can be easily set up in no time. Also, read information about starting a business and have an entrepreneurial mindset.The more you learn about running a business and using different sales technique the better. Selling art is not just about applying to art shows ,, selling on Etsy and being represented in art galleries but about marketing yourself nonstop using various marketing strategies that will help propel your business. I encourage you to read more books about marketing and selling as much as you read books on creating art. This will help you build the right mindset to run a successful business.

4. Find places to sell your work . Apply to art shows, art festivals, gift shops, galleries and the like. Do not go to libraries, coffee shops, or restaurants. People do not go to these places to buy art. Just like real estate where location is king, same goes for finding places to sale your work. You have to place your art in front of people who would be willing to buy your art without any problem. Make sure you consider locations that are conducive to your market. You also want to put your art in front of people that pertains to your niche. If you paint birds you may want to sale at bird shows or several gift shops. Since I paint images of musicians playing different instruments I apply to music festivals. Do you see what I trying to get at.

5. Build a name for yourself . When you begin to sell your work at festivals, galleries or online set in motion your brand. Market yourself in such a way that when people think of art, or your niche, they think of you. The more you put your art in front of people the more chances of galleries and other art windows seek you out. You can also build your name by giving yourself a nickname like "the bird painter" if you paint birds. This could serve as your brand when building your customer base. I use a slogan that says "Jazz Up Your Life" since I paint musicians playing jazz music. When ever I do an outdoor show I have a sign up with that slogan above my tent. People respond to it very well.

Using all these tips can create a major impact for anyone trying to sell their artwork in their local area. There are a plethora of information out there that will mention many of these tips over and over again simply because they work. The more you focus on just creating art without planning on how to market and sell your artwork you will lose out. So please take head to these tips and move forward to becoming not just a good artist but a successful selling artist.


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Daedalean Exile

Once upon a time and a very good time it was there was a moocow coming down along the road and this moocow that was coming down along the road met a nicens little boy named baby tuckoo … (P1).

Stephen Dedalus, the young modern intellectual of Dublin, leaves his hometown at the end of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and chooses a life of self-imposed exile to cherish his artistic desires. Stephen reappears at the beginning of Ulysses; however, in spite of his return to home he feels a deeper sense of loneliness and exile. In this article, Stephen Dedalus' state of exile and alienation which basically begins with his alienation and exile from his family, his religion, Catholic Church, and his motherland, Ireland. This sense of exile and alienation initiates from Portrait then continues and deepens into Ulysses. Afterward considering Edward Said's view that the notion of exile is closely associated with the intellectual, Stephen's intellectual exile and its artistic representations would have been studied. "Tuckoo" in some biological encyclopaedias is known as a kind of bird, which always lives alone and when it is time to lay eggs, a Tuckoo goes to lay eggs in other birds' nests. Simon Dedalus is retelling the Tuckoo's story for the very young Stephen. This is what could be called Joyce's dexterity, because from the very beginning it brings his discerning reader what could be Stephen's life like? His life that Joyce introduces from A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and continues to Ulysses.

The story of Portrait concerns Stephen's growing up alienation from the inflexible social environment. Exile is what Stephen chooses in order to save his artistic desires and aspirations. Joyce made Stephen conscious of his name and the mythical role associated with it. In Ulysses, some Dubliner also refers to Stephen Dedalus's name: "you make good use of the name … fabulous artificer, the hawk like man. You flew. Whereto? New heaven …." (210). Stephen struggles to be a Daedalus, a skillful one who by the aid of artful wings tries to fly away from the self-made maze of his life. His wings he makes in Portrait are to save him in exile, too. He leaves behind his motherland, his religion, and his family to live in exile, while his mother believes at the closing lines of Portrait that Stephen must learn away from home and friends what the heart is and what he feels. Stephen Dedalus reappears at the beginning of Ulysses. His mother is dead for about one year now; His artistic attempts seemingly failed at Paris. He has left his home and is living at Martello tower, where he pays the rent, but Mulligan, his Irish, vicious friend keeps the keys. There is a third friend living with them for some days in spite of Stephen's dissatisfaction, an English tourist. Mulligan, as Stephen calls him, has the role of a "usurper" in Stephen's life, one of the many in his life, though. At the end, Stephen decides that he will not return to Martello tower, or to his father's house. Therefore, even returning from the physical exile from Paris, he is still an outcast, an exile at home. Cawelti believes that the two male protagonists of Ulysses are both physical and spiritual exiles in Dublin. He states that Stephen Dedalus's exile goes back to earlier times:

Stephen Dedalus deeply alienated from the dominant powers

ruling Ireland-the British empire and the Roman Catholic

Church- has gone to France some time before the novel

opens on June 16, 1904. But, he has failed in his attempt

at exile. Driven by guilt about his mother's death and his

ambiguous feelings about her, he has returned to Ireland,

only to feel himself no longer at home in any way. His

ultimate fate is uncertain, but if he follows the pattern

of his creator after the end of the novel he will go into

permanent exile. (Cawelti 42)

Edward Said in his book Representations of the Intellectual about the modern, young intellectuals like Buzarov, Protagonist of Pathhers and Sons, sates that:

The first thing we notice about him is that he has severed

his ties with his own parents, and seems less a son than

a sort of self- produced character, challenging routine,

assailing mediocrity and clichés, asserting new scientific

and unsentimental values ​​that appear to be rational and

progressive. (Said 14-15)

Edward Said's idea is also applicable to Joyce's modern young intellectual, Stephen Dedalus, as well. Being unsatisfied with his family relations, his obedient, passive, and pious mother; his heedless, incapable, and indolent Father, Stephen tries to break away with them as soon as possible and replace the lost family and father with a self-produced identity as an artist. Stephen's sufferings from family problems are excessive and that causes him to stand away from his family. This is the situation of Stephen's life in Portrait and the fact that his parents could have been the first limiting elements at his home; thus, he tries to escape from them and to take refuge in another world. He poses exile on himself and leaves behind his family to make a self-made world of art, in which, he is the authoritative figure. Deane Declares that Stephen's conflict within his family is a very painful conflict and starts from Portrait and continues into Ulysses:

It was a conflict between a son and his parents-cultural, religious,

biological-and a desperate attempt to go beyond the terms set by

such a conflict by producing a theory of the self as its own parent,

Egypt, less willingly, a desire of the self for alternative; surrogate

parents who would permit the imagination to live its necessarily

vicarious existence. This is the layout of Stephen Dedalus in

Ulysses. (Deane 41)

One interesting point referred by some critics such as Gibbons in Semicolonial Joyce is that, this chaotic and turbulent condition within the family from which Stephen escapes, could have been as a result of the colonial condition of Ireland. Or on the other hand this condition, in a broader scale, could symbolize the chaotic condition of Ireland. According to Gibbons:

to call into question the integrity of the family was

to underscore the foundational fictions of the colonial

public sphere, and it was perhaps this porousness

between public and private life which led Joyce to

proclaim in an early letter to Nora: "my mind rejects

the whole present social order and Christianity-home

, the recognized virtues, classes of life, and religion

doctrines. How could I like the idea of ​​home?

(Letters II, 48) [Italics mine]. (Gibbons 168)

Stephen also claims in Ulysses that he has no home to go. No home, no hometown, no motherland. The best policy for the progress artist is to dwell in the realm of exile, "silence, exile, and cunning." Before moving on to explore Stephen Dedalus's state of actual and metaphoric exile in more details advice Joyce's careful observation of the complicated Irish occupation condition. Joyce in his 1907 lecture in Trieste, Italy, entitled "Ireland, The Island of Saints And Sages" confessions that "I do not see what good it does to fulminate against the English tyranny while the Roman tyranny occupations the palace of soul" (173 ). Joyce equates English and Catholic Church in their tyrannical influences. It seems that both Joyce and Stephen in Portrait and Ulysses are aware of the destructive influence of these two forces: the imperialistic force and the tyranny of Catholicism. One has occupied the motherland, while the other has occupied the realm and freedom of soul, of the intellectual spirit; the intellectual spirit attributed to ancient Dublin and Ireland, as Joyce mentions in his Trieste lecture.

Actual Exile of Stephen Dedalus

I will not sleep here tonight, home.Also I can not go. (U29)

Stephen Dedalus's physical exile and dislocation in Ulysses, is not new for readers of Joyce and Portrait, where, Stephen from the very beginning is an actual exile. As a little boy, he is sent to another city to school. This is his first experience of a hard time away from home, actually, his first experience of physical exile. He especially misses his mother. He can not forget her red nose and eyes, when they were saying goodbye, for a long time. He leaves home for the first time to receive a good education his father wishes for him. Neverheless, his artistic desires and aspirations growing up inside, he struggles to remove the outside, physical obstacles, such as, his biological family, his established religion, and nationality. His final choice to go and live in exile, rather than live amid familiar, but restricting nets is the beginning of an adventurous flight toward an exilic life. His heart yearns for the "oceanic silence over the flowing waters" (P 135). In Ulysses, returning home from an experience of actual exile abroad, he feels more intensely that he is not home in anyway, anymore. Once more, he fancies "a voice, sweetened and sustained, called to him from the sea … it called again" (U 29). Buck Mulligan Stephen's Irish friend who is living with him at Martello tower and exploits Stephen and the English tourist, Haines, are aware of the fact that Stephen will not stay long in Ireland. Sometimes that is why he misuses Stephen's money and place. He tells Stephen that you do not seem to stay long here. Beside, Stephen will not fight over what he has lost long ago. Stephen Dedalus, back to Dublin and home after some time of living away, not only feels his dislocation and alienation more deeply than before, but he has become more sensible as a prisoner of two masters. He says I feel like a "servant" of two masters: an English master as well as an Italian one.

By these two masters, as his "color is rising" he means "the imperial British state" and "the holy Roman Catholic and apostolic church" (U 26). This is how he feels at his home. Haines believes that Stephen can free himself. He tells Stephen "After all, I should think you are able to free yourself." You are your own master, it seems to me "(U 26). Mr. Deasy, the principal of the school Stephen is teaching at a short time, also perceives the point that Stephen "will not remain in here very long at this work" (U 41). The mastery Haines and Mr. Deasy talk about indications the fact that the people around Stephen also perceives his being dislocated and are aware of the fact that Stephen's return into actual exile is very probable. Therefore, some friends and acquaintances around him, also feel that he is a stranger at home, in spite of the fact that many of the people who know him, hail him as a successful literary young man outside and inside. Some of them also ask Stephen: "Are you not happy in your home?" (U 262). This is the way he feels at his hometown: "I have no place to sleep." U 537 Stephen's strong sense of alienation and hatred from his home and his country, may be applicable to his detest from the whole condition in Ireland. As he declares in Portrait, he believes that his ancestors cave in Ireland to a group of foreigners. He is very sensitive to what has happened to their country by the means of the English masters. the subject to the two masters. For Stephen, as for Joyce himself, even the language they are speaking in Ireland belongs to the English master, before it is their.

According to Howes, "Stephen's estrangement from the language in which he writes makes a classical colonial condition, in which the colonizers try to force their language and culture upon the colonized" (257). Therefore, it is possible to conclude that Stephen's rejection of all the physical and actual idea of ​​home, family, religion, and country could be in fact the rejection of the colonial and imperial force dominating his belongings. In order to unchain himself from the foreigner force, he has to leave behind at first, the physical home, church, and country. The first step in achieving his goal is to impose an exilic life on himself. Going into actual and physical exile indications, at a depth level, his spiritual exile at home. In the following part Stephen's symbolic exile, as well as his intellectual exile as an artist would have studied.

Metaphoric and Spiritual Exile of Stephen Dedalus

Stephen Dedalus's spiritual exile, alongside with his actual exile, begins from Portrait and continues into Ulysses. Stephen from his early teenage years becomes disoriented and homeless among many alien traditions. In postcolonial studies, this kind of spiritual exile is common in colonial societies where, the dominating political force tries to dictate its cultural and artistic ideals on the colonized people's society. Such condition deprives artists and intellectuals into exile. They feel dislocated and disoriented amongst a familiar culture, which is being manipulated in the hands of others. Stephen's artistic soul warns for a free environment to breathe in. However, from his early twenties in Portrait, when he is justifying his final flight for his friend, Cranly, he is aware of the fact that there is not anything like "free thinking in this country." Ireland is not a proper place to express his artistic and intellectual thoughts; He says, "I also am sure that there is no such thing as free thinking in as much as all thinking must be bound by its own laws" (P 108). Stephen Dedalus's metaphoric exile becomes more serious when one assumes his role as an intellectual in a colonized society; a society like Ireland with a very long history of subject. In modern times, the idea of ​​exile based on Edward Said is closely associated with the notion of intellectuals.

Stephen Dedalus is known as one of the most famous radical intellectual figures. According to Said in Representations of the Intellectual, one of the intellectuals' features is their nonconformity towards the socially accepted norms. Of course, it does not mean that they are anarchists, but they are reformists. Stephen's nonconformity and unorthodoxy is revealed very easily through his thorough rejection of three of the most crucial authoritative social sites of family, religion, and nationality. Stephen rejects to be the good son of mother, because she desires him to decorate himself with one of the most threatening chains of slavery; a slavery of both body and soul, in Stephen's view at least. He rejects to enter the gray world of justice, for he believes in a self-created world of ingenious artist. Stephen, on the other hand, is very skeptical of the benefits of any liberating movements to renew the ancient Ireland. When his friends at college ask him to join the group and sign up for membership, he rejects. As Said in the introduction of Representations of the Intellectual indications, an intellectual is someone who can not "easily be co-opted by government or corporations", and also an intellectual usually questions "patriotic nationalism" and "corporate thinking." Stephen drops the Gaelic class as a consequence of this kind of beliefs and ignores his friend's advice of "try to be one of us" (P 170). However, for Stephen retaining his individuality and his individual independent mind is too dear, even if he is told at college that "you are an antisocial being, wrapped up in yourself" (P 103). He is called an "antisocial" person, because he does not join the nationalistic movements. Since he appreciates his own individuality better than anything else, he will not join the crowd. He decreles, "you are right to go your way. Leave me to go mine" (P 115).

The interesting point is that his rejection of the nationalistic movements could have been at a level level the rejection of the colonial and imperial force exploiting his country and culture. He is aware of the fact that as far as Irish people's destiny is in the control of the British master, talking of liberating the motherland is vain; for one real reason: Ireland has proved to be disloyal towards her patriotic sons. She had given them away one by one. One of the examples has been Parnell, an outstanding example in Stephen's mind. Repeatedly, Stephen's rejection of his country and religion are associated to each other in some ways. The Roman Catholic Church, the priest, and the Pope, as well as the British imperial have occupied the Irish people's lives; one has occupied the realm of the soul, and the latter the realm of motherland. Church has shown its hostility towards any nationalistic movements several times.

For Stephen and many other intellectuals in Ireland, Catholic Church and the British master have the same role in creating hard times for Irish race. Based on the grounds that all these three traditional Irish values ​​are considered "nets" for Stephen's individual aspirations and desires, he should live a miserable life among all the familiar, but restrictive culture. He is considered an outcast and a marginal character at such a society. Although, he lives at his native land, he experiences a spiritual exile. To become free from this metaphoric and spiritual exile, he should impede a physical exile on himself. He dares to leave behind all the actual reasons of his symbolic exile. This intellectual young Stephen is what Said believes to be the radical and rebellious product of modern times, kind of people who question, not to say undermine, the authoritative sites. For Stephen, the young intellectual artist, language, the medium of his literary expression is an alien factor. Because, as stated before, this language belongs to the English master, before it is his.

However, he tries to master this means of expression in his own literary world. As Howes in Cambridge Companion to Joyce mentions, "Critics have often suggested that Joyce's linguistic virtuosity constituents a project to re-colonize the English language, to take it away from the imperial masters" (257). This is what is true of the exilic character of Stephen at college and when he returns from Paris to Dublin in Ulysses. Gibbons in an article included in Semicolonial Joyce mentions that Stephen in Portrait notices that "home" is one of the words, along with "ale" and "master", that sound different on English and Irish lips, and we may "speculate that the latter two words, with their associations of alcohol and colonial domination, are not unrelated to the different resonances of "home" in Ireland. (166) Stephen Dedalus, both in Portrait and Ulysses experiences a sense of "half-involvements" and "half -detachments "with his home and language. He finally decides to detach himself from Ireland and all his affiliations. decide to fly into permanent exile; the permanent exile, which its physical and spiritual types are closely connected to each other. is Howes quotation from Semicolonial Joyce. Howes believes that Stephen's exile is a complex one:

struggling with competing ways of transforming the

local affiliations he has lost into membership in a

national community. This process depends upon two

major factors. First, Stephen's geographical movement,

other displacements, and the homesickness they produce

, and second, fantasized but threatening construction of

rural Ireland. (Howes 70)

Intellectual Exile of the Young Artist

Young Stephen Dedalus's pays a dear price to fulfill his artistic desires. Joyce traces the process of his character's growth in becoming an artist. As mentioned before, Stephen rejects the authority of all the traditional Irish nets, because they betray his artistic growth. Therefore, he takes refuge in the realm of art, because in such situation, according to Deane, in Cambridge Companion to Joyce, "only art is beyond betrayal. production in which his own authorship is secure. "The problem is, of course, that Stephen is always about to become an artist" (43). Stephen's early conflict in Portrait to his struggles in Ulysses is to liberate his lonely soul among the many threatening traditions for his artistic process. His strategy to succeed in his decision is to make a pair of artistic wings; the artistic wings which could secure his escape and a triumphant flight. The point here is that Stephen does not believe in the old Ireland's art to be liberating. He does not believe in local art at all. He, like his creator Joyce and at times his counterpart, believes in the international rather than traditional art. Stephen becomes more alienated, when he rejects, for example, to submit to Gaelic language class, or to stick hard to Irish ideas of art or nationality. His logical perception of the Irish art is far from a biased view. He believes that Irish art is the "cracked looking glass of a servant" (U46). According to Leonard, Stephen by this definition of Irish art perhaps is "hinting at the danger of appearing back into an idealized past in order to obscure the pain of an oppressed present and an apparently intractable future "(100).

The true artist, here, does not try to conform to social norms to make progress in his process of becoming an artist at home. Stephen rejects to conform to the Irish political history as well as its literary history. His alienation from both, the political as well as literary history of his motherland, makes him a lonelier exilic figure at home. As mentioned and emphasized in the previous paragraphs, in Said's opinion in Representations of the Intellectual, an intellectual figure confronts "orthodoxy and dogma" and attempts to "break down the stereotypes and reductive categories." He also believes that an intellectual like Joyce's young, radical Stephen Dedalus is not "capable and fit for domestication" (16), because the intellectual "will not adjust to domesticity or to humdrum of routine" (17). Said emphasizes again on the fact that Stephen's early early "career" is a "seesaw" between rejection and acceptance of the three nets. On the other hand in Said's view Stephen should "develop a resistant intellectual consciousness before he becomes an artist," that is because he is a "young provincial and the product of a colonial environment" (16-17). Stephen Dedalus is entirely aware of the colonially occupied Ireland's dead environment. He soon realizes that he will not be able to develop his artistic and intellectual self, except by passing through "the boundaries of mythic individualism, which constrained equally his sense of artistic self and his use of expressive language" (Sherry 91). Only in this way, he could fully realize an emotional, artistic and intellectual life. To achieve this purpose, he had to leave behind any restrictive object and concept and to live in a volunteer exile. He is sure that conforming to any ideological institutions, such as, Student's National Movement at college would just undersine and reduce his individuality.

Thus, based on Said another intellectual sign, which Stephen represents, is the fact that he questions and rejects "patriotic nationalism, corporate thinking." Stephen in Ulysses again shouts his nonconformity and declares that "Ah non, par example! The intellectual imagination! With me all or not at all, Non Serviam" (517). Stephen by declaring "all or not at all" might have in mind the chaotic situation of Ireland on the whole; Its political, religious, social, economic, artistic, and intellectual situation of Ireland. Joyce in his Trieste lecture of 1907 criticizes all the brutal British exploits on Ireland, which specifically reveals economic and intellectual damage caused by imperial force. For Stephen the imperial forces, British and Catholic, exploit the artistic and intellectual factors in Ireland as well. The dominating shadow of, for example, Catholic Church on the relationship between the family members in Stephen's case, a son and a mother; or the dark shadow of the British force on the political situation of the motherland derives an intellectual mind like Stephen's to prefer "all or not at all." By rejecting this "all", Stephen is determined to maintain his individuality. He seemed to be aware of the colonization of not only the land, but of the minds. In Ulysses, he decreles, "struggle for life is the law of existence but modern philatelist, notably the tsar and the king of England, have invented arbitration (he taps his brow), but in here it is I must kill the pries and the king "(521) .Therefore, Stephen believes in the idea that thinking as an individual can be the redeeming factor in his life. Stephen's intellectual exile becomes intensified when he struggles to make his way through an artistic career of self-creation. When his desire to create a perfect world is not fulfilled in the real occupied colonial Ireland, consequently, he quests for freedom and individuality in a world of art; an art world based on his own literary theory, in which disloyalty does not have any synonyms, but antonyms. The repressing, both physical and spiritual, domestic condition, the colonized literary and artistic culture, as well as, the possibility of falling from the "intellectual prominence with an allusion to the sounds of Daedalus's counterpart, Milton's Lucifer, on the floor of hell" (Sherry82), makes Stephen to choose a life of "silence, exile, and cunning" (P 247). This choice to live in an artistic and intellectual exile is therefore, for Stephen a heeling force. That may be because of the fact that according to Said living in exile creates a sharp vision for the intellectual artist, a kind of multi-dimensional view of things. The exiles see and notice, at least, two aspects of things; what it is now and how it came to be like this. This could be one of Stephen's purposes to live in exile, to give force to his artistic vision.

Furthermore, Stephen's view of this breaking away and exile is ambitious to some extent. At the end of Portrait dreaming of a utopia, he wishes to fly by so high, by the means of his artistic wings, in order that he can "forge in the smithy of my soul the uncreated conscience of my race." Finally, Stephen Dedalus in Ulysses declares, "there can be no reconciliation …, if there has not been a sundering" (195). He may be in search of a kind of "reconciliation" in his artistic and intellectual exile, flying away, returning, and again …. Flying back or not?!? Restricting nets of family, nationality, and religion extremely leads to Stephen Dedalus to leave his motherland and live an exilic life. His physical exile starts at his early stages of life. Stephen's alienating himself from the physical idea of ​​home, country, and church denotes a deer kind of exile, that is his spiritual exile. Stephen's rejection of authoritative status and not confirming to any preconceived norms, and his rebellious characteristics, which makes him not classifiable, makes Stephen a good example of an intellectual figure, fed up with the miserable condition of life in his motherland, living a painful exilic life either away from home, or at home.

Works Cited

Attridge, Derek, ed. Cambridge Companion to James Joyce . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.-.

— "Reading Joyce." Cambridge Companion to James Joyce . Ed, Derek AttridgeCambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, p. 1-27.

—. Semicolonial Joyce . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Butler, Christopher. "Joyce the Modernist." Cambridge Companion to James Joyce .Ed, Derek Attridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 67-86.

Cawelti, John. "Eliot, Joyce, and Exile." ANQ 14, 4 (2001): 38-45.

Cullingford, Elizabeth Butler. "Phoenician Genealogies and Oriental Geographies: Joyce, Language, and race." Semicolonial Joyce . Ed, Derek Attridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 219-239.

Deane, Seamus. "Joyce the Irishman." Cambridge Companion to James Joyce . Ed. Derek Attridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 28-48. Ellman, Richard, and Ellsworth Mason, eds. Critical Writings of James Joyce. London: Maclehose, 1959.

Gibbons, Luke. "Have You No Homes To Go? Joyce and the Politics of Paralysis." Semicolonial Joyce . Ed. Derek Attridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000. 150-171.

Howes, Marjorie. "Joyce, Colonialism, and Nationalism." Cambridge Companion to James Joyce . Ed. Derek Attridge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 254-271.

James, Joyce. Ulysses with a Short History by Richard Ellman. London: Penguin Books, 1969.

Said, Edward. Reflections on Exile and Other Essays . Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.

—. Representations of the Intellectual . New York: Pantheon Books, 1994.

Sherry, Vincent. James Joyce: Ulysses Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.


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Banksy’s Influences – Who Inspired Banksy?

Banksy is a pseudo-name for a well-known British graffiti artist. He is believed to be born around 1974 in Yate, South Gloucestershire. He was first involved in graffiti during the great Bristol aerosol boom on the late 1980s. The style of his artwork is mostly satirical piece on topics such as culture, ethnic, and politics. Technique wise, the way he combines both stencil and graffiti is very similar to a French artist Blek Le Rat. His art that appear in cities around the world was first born out of Bristol underground scene involving musicians and artists. His prints are popular with celebrity and singer Christina Aguilera and actor Brad Pitt.

When it started, Blek Le Rat took inspiration from New York’s graffiti scenes. It is from this scene that he created his own style by continuously painting stenciled rats around the streets in Paris before going nationwide to Lyon, Marseille and Toulouse.

Banksy has also recognized Blek Le Rat influences in his artwork while also being a big fan of Blek’s work. In one of his quote, Banksy said “Every time I think I’ve painted something slightly original, I find out that Blek Le Rat has done it as well, only twenty years earlier.”

On the other hand, Prou admitted that he sees Banksy as a son of his movement in addition to crediting Blanksy for raising his profile while providing him with increased publication that resulted in increased commercial success. In his interview with Sunday Times, Prou said “I consider him like my descendant. He took some ideas. But he changed them. And he took the movement to a huge level all over the world.”

What other’s do not really know is that there is another person whom inspired Banksy to first take out his stencils and spray paints in the dead of night. Known as the Godfather of Street Art, Richard Hambleton made his first mark in the 1970s painting chalk outlines with red blood across North America cities. His most famous piece, the Shadowman and Marlboro Man collections are among some of his pieces that have the clearest links to Banksy.

He was born in Vancouer, Canada in june 1954. He earned his bachelor in 1975 from Emily Carr School of Art. Recognize as the Founder and Co-Director of “Pumps” Center for Alternative Art in Vancouver. He is now working and living in New York City. Richard Hambleton is the surviving member of group who, together among Jean-Michel Basquiat and Keith Haring, had a great success coming out of New York City art scene during the 1980s. A lot of his work is similar to graffiti art, however, Hambleton considered his work as public art.

He is the person who influenced Xavier Prou (Blek Le Rat). When ask, Prou said that he really like Richard Hambleton. Richard was the first artist from NYC to export his work all over the world in the 80s. His work has been so widespread in Europe it could be found in London, Paris, Berlin, Rome, and many other cities.


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Famous Artists Who Have Changed the World

Famous artists throughout history have contributed to the social and political landscape of different societies around the world. Some of these artists have made creations never before seen by man. Many have lead art movements that have shaped the world we live in. Here are four out of many who have changed the world through art.

Leonardo Da Vinci:

Multi-talented Italian painter of the 15th Century, Leonardo Da Vinci, was a master sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist. Apart form being an ingenious artist, Da Vinci possessed a brilliant mind which was inclined towards knowledge and understanding of everything. He is unique in the scientifically accurate sketches of objects, human body anatomy drafts, and medical and scientific designs that he also constructed with great detail, creativity and accuracy. Da Vinci’s abilities are astonishing at any age the truth is.

His two most famous paintings of the Mona Lisa and of The last Supper have stirred strong waves of controversy through the creation of the Da Vinci Code Series. They have also been parts of influencing or aiding new movements, such as occurrence of the deformation of the Mona Lisa painting by Dada, in order to create a new piece which belonged to the Dada art movement as opposed to the classical art movement.

Salvador Dali:

Spanish painter, Salvador Dali, was the leader of the surrealist art movement, with his famous painting entitled The Persistence of Memory in 1931. The painting featured an abysmal array of melting clocks, and was seen as a reflection of the internal and fearful clockworks of the male psyche. The nightmare like worlds that are created through Dali’s paintbrushes display an abstract, nonsensical, and logically confusing world, and may present the viewer with a way of developing underlying subconscious awareness, of lost feelings and fears.

Andy Warhol:

Andy Warhol is a leading figure or artist of the modern pop art movement. He is also one of the most influential and important artistic figures of the 20th century, and is generally associated with the proliferation of art imagery and mass imagery distribution. The nature of his modern art played a tremendous role in redefining the nature, social place, financial value, and general identity of what was considered to be art.

Warhol’s pop art portrait of Marilyn Monroe and Jacqueline Kennedy employ the usage of multi-images and repetition in order to reinforce the concept of mass production and eradicate class differences through the means of obliterating distinctions.

The public distribution of unique paintings onto the hands of many, through the aid of the printing press, challenged many notions about art, its right to become reproduced numerously, and its scope of existence, and influence in general.

Mark Rothko:

Rothko was a famous American painter of the 1900’s and an eager leader in the progression of the transient art movement of abstract surrealism. He created a link between the present surrealism of his time and the abstractism of the future, and is regarded as a progressive mind and artist. His paintings speak of nothing less than unchallenged originality and completion, and are widely influencing the direction of modern abstract art today.


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Stages of Artistic Development in Preschoolers and Toddlers

Art is an important aspect of learning in early childhood education and must be carefully designed to enhance their artistic development and nurture an appreciation for beauty in their world. Art enriches the lives of all preschoolers and toddlers as it provides experiences for them in finding meaning about themselves and the world around them.

“From the moment the child discovers what it looks like and feels like to put lines down on paper, he has found something he will never lose, he has found art” – R. Kellogg 1969.

Rhoda Kellogg has studied 100,000 young children’s drawings drawn with pencil, pen, crayon or brush and this extensive study has helped significantly in our understanding of children’s artistic development. She was particularly interested in the scribbles of young children and she discovered that children progress from making scribbles to drawing pictures by using a built-in, spontaneous method of self-teaching and would continue until the children were 5 years old and only in the later stages of development that children’s artwork can be coached and guided by an adult.

Kellogg also identified various symbols that have been drawn by children across various cultures. The mandala design which is a simple circle or square divided by intersecting lines is produced by children in different parts of the world. Kellogg also discovered that preschoolers and toddlers unlike older children are not concerned about their art pieces looking nice or resembling real things but they move their hands to express a feeling that comes from within them and are delighted in the movement and scribbles they produce. With this knowledge in mind, it is important not to force them to look at physical objects and try to copy it but allow them to experiment, create in their own unique way thus providing them an opportunity to express their own ideas and feelings.

The artistic developmental stages are the scribble stage, basic form stage and the pictorial stage. Although there is a predictable pattern to their development, preschoolers and toddlers move through the levels in different ways and at their own pace. These stages can assist parents or teachers as they work with young children and provide guidelines for planning for a specific group of children.

Kellogg’s developmental stages

1. Scribble stage

These are the earliest drawings of young children. They are simple and random markings, made for the pleasure of drawing scribbles. During this stage, the young children have no concern in trying to draw to represent anything but rather are enjoying the process of making scribbles on the paper.

2. Basic form stage

Children begin to draw simple lines and shapes. Kellogg identified several universal symbols that children use around the world. These include the mandala, sun, ladders, spirals, wavy lines and rainbows. These symbols were being used to communicate and were the beginnings of writing. Children in this stage continue to draw for pleasure.

3. Pictorial stage

During this stage, children use the shapes from stage 2 to draw symbolic representations of real people and things such as houses, tress and windows. They begin to identify their drawings, tell related stories and expand their drawings to include new meanings and understanding.

Positive and appropriate nurture of preschoolers and toddlers beginning artistic efforts can provide a strong foundation for later development and enjoyment of artistic experiences.

10 Steps to Set Artistic Goals That Succeed Brilliantly

Setting the right artistic goals is more than energizing and inspirational! You step into your power when you create a crystal clear artistic intention. In fact, you start living as the artist you have always dreamed of being.

Don’t let this remain just a pleasant pipe dream. Learn right now how to set the kind of artistic goals that enable you to achieve what you truly want from life.

Create Only Goals That Empower You

It is easy to become overly caught up in fantasies. Initial brainstorming of possible outcomes can generate unrealistic plans to reach your goals. A bit of wild dreaming is expected and can actually motivate you. But if you don’t then apply a reality test to each option, you may end up disappointed, discouraged and discard your goals altogether.

Your Road to Rewarding Artistic Goals

Here are 10 success-driven steps to set winning goals:

  1. Identify Your Target Market.
  2. To thrive as an artist, you need to establish a clear mental picture of your targeted market. The goal is yours alone, so be completely frank.

  3. Create Specific Goals.
  4. A common goal is to paint and show your work more, but this is too general to be useful. Instead, define what you actually want: for example, “I want to exhibit in 6 shows and paint 2 pictures a month in 2012.” This is an achievable and measurable artistic goal.

  5. Set Short and Long-Term Milestones.
  6. Milestones serve a dual purpose. First, they motivate you with a focused target. Second, they break large overwhelming goals into smaller, manageable ones. Here’s how:

    • Picture your ideal long-term milestone. Make it vivid and let it energize you!
    • Mark this end point on a calendar.
    • Now, starting from your “due date”, work backwards. Schedule each short-term milestone that leads you to your ultimate goal.
    • Write it into your calendar.
    • Next, develop weekly goals to move you towards each short-term milestone.
    • Working backwards helps you achieve your goals by seeing the big picture first.
  7. Generate small, reachable artistic goals.
  8. These will maintain your enthusiasm and momentum.

  9. Expect setbacks.
  10. To expect that you will not experience any disappointment during your journey is simply unrealistic.

  11. Protect your focus.
  12. Determine how you will handle interruptions, unexpected events and low creativity, before they come to take a bite out of your productivity.

  13. Have confidence in your dream.
  14. Affirm that it’s OK if others lack the time or energy to encourage you. The one who needs to be fully committed to your dream is you. So go full tilt!

  15. Reevaluate your intention over time.
  16. It is okay and often necessary to periodically assess your initial goals. So conduct a review at regular, realistic intervals. Is this goal still valid?

  17. Revise your goal as needed.
  18. Rather than cling to a goal that no longer suits you or seems viable, update it so that it remains workable and compelling to you.

  19. Modify your strategy to fit changing times.
  20. Sometimes the goal works well, but you need to change your steps to achieve it. Shifts in your life situation can challenge you to become more resourceful. Welcome this as a chance to grow!

Artistic goals are yours. You can do with them as you wish. So bring to them the dedication they deserve. Then you live your life with passion, conviction and success!

3 Artistic Devices Used in Contemporary Movies and Film

Unlike written texts, movies generally employ three common types of artistic devices. These devices, although quite obvious once described, may not be immediately apparent to a young viewer. Educators can assist students in identifying these devices, defining their characteristics and understanding how they relate to the movie or film at hand. Repetition of this exercise will allow the young viewer to become proficient in quickly making the connection between the artistic devices used by the filmmakers and the movie’s underlying meaning.

The ELA curriculum of today has its roots in 17th, 18th and 19th century literature. The stories that interested the people of those times and were expressed via the written word. However, today’s youth will experience the vast majority of storytelling through screens (television, feature films, video games or the web). Thus, to stay relevant, modern educators must address stories told on screens as well as those in traditional written formats.

The three levels of artistic devices are:

1) Traditional Elements and Devices of Fiction in Novels and Short Stories

Many hours of current ELA instruction are spent on the elements and devices of fiction. They include: plot, character development, protagonist, antagonist, prologue, expository phase, crisis, rising action, falling action, denouement, epilogue voice, symbol, foreshadowing, flashback, imagery, irony, foil, archetype, motif, etc. These are also found in screenplays and the analysis of these elements and devices in the medium of film can assist students in understanding their use in written texts.

2) Traditional Devices of the Stage

These include: sets, simple lighting, costumes, props, sound effects, acting choice, choreography of movement, music and dance. The response to music and dance is something many young viewers are accustomed to already, as they are a crucial component of many popular movie and film productions.

3) Cinematic Methods

This layer of artistic expression includes shot angle, camera movement within the shot, music/sound effects, editing, colors/visuals and lighting levels.

In conclusion, no single method of adapting ELA curriculum to the current digital environment has been agreed upon. Many discussions and varying methods exist. However, regardless of the method, students will ultimately benefit from having the tools to make sense of what they see on the screen. The important aspect to take away from this writing is that every ELA course (from 6th to 12th grade) should devote a substantial portion of their lessons to analyzing stories through movies and documentary film.


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